The Pulitzer Prize has a fascinating and storied history. I am excited to read through each winner for the Novel category (later to the “Fiction” category post-1948). The Prize was initially established through a provision in Mr. Joseph Pulitzer’s estate. In his will, he left a bequest of $250,000 to Columbia University establishing a series of literary and journalistic awards (Mr. Pulitzer gave a total bequest of $2,000,000 to create a journalism school at Columbia). The $250,000 gift (or 1/4 of his estate gift to Columbia University) was to be “applied to prizes or scholarships for the encouragement of public service, public morals, American literature, and the advancement of education.”
Who Is Joseph Pulitzer?
Mr. Pulitzer was born “Pulitzer Josef” to a Hungarian-Jewish family. His father was a wealthy man. When Joseph was 17 he moved to Boston and became a soldier in the American Civil War. He was briefly drafted into the Union forces but he quickly fled from his recruiter by jumping into Boston Harbor so he could enlist without the recruiter’s bounty. After the war, he briefly worked in the whaling industry and a number of other odd jobs spanning from New York to St. Louis. In one case, Pulitzer was swindled into paying a transportation fee with the promise of a well-paying job on a Louisiana sugar plantation. Upset about the situation, he wrote an article and published it in a local paper. He also worked on the railroad before deciding to study law. In 1867, he renounced his Austro-Hungarian citizenship and became an American citizen. Eventually, he landed a job as a reporter where he excelled as a writer. Mr. Pulitzer gradually rose in the newspaper business. He was also successfully nominated for political office by the Republican Party. However, eventually he became disillusioned with the corruption of the Republican Party and he switched to the Democratic Party.
In 1878, he bought two newspaper companies and he merged them into one as the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. By 1883, he was now a wealthy man and he purchased the New York World, a failing newspaper for $346,000. In order to turn a profit and generate excitement he emphasized sensationalism and scandal in its pages, a strategy that improved the paper’s sales. Under Pulitzer’s ownership, the New York World became the largest newspaper in the country, even becoming the chief rival of Hearst’s newspaper, the New York Journal. In 1884, Pulitzer served in the U.S House of Representatives, but he quit his term mid-way through to focus on the demands of his newspaper business. Eventually, the World declined and it closed in 1931, long after after Pulitzer’s death.
In his later years, Pulitzer struggled with depression, blindness, and acute noise sensitivity. On a boat trip traveling to one of his homes in Georgia, Pulitzer stopped in Charleston, South Carolina. While his German secretary read aloud to him about King Louis XI of France, he muttered “Softly, quite softly” and he passed away. He died in 1911 at the age of 64.
In his will which he drafted in 1904, Mr. Pulitzer specified several different awards, though perhaps the one that is most pertinent here is the Pulitzer Prize for the Novel (1917-1947), now called Fiction (1948-Present). Each year, an awardee receives $10,000 (this amount was increased in 2017 to $15,000). Joseph Pulitzer’s initial will stipulated that the prize will be given “annually, for the American novel published during the year which shall best represent the whole atmosphere of American life, and the highest standards of American manners and manhood.” Before the first year of the awards however, the word “whole” was eventually changed to “wholesome” at the behest of Nicholas Murray Butler, President of Columbia University. Mr. Butler’s intent was to introduce a moral element to the award. This change from “whole” to “wholesome” led to a panoply of dilemmas for the Pulitzer Prize over the next few years. The fluctuation of the term “whole vs. wholesome” occurred throughout the 1910s-1930s, until in 1936 when the award was again changed to reflect “a distinguished novel of the year,” and this terminology was then revised again in 1947 when the term “novel” was changed to “fiction in book form.”
Mr. Pulitzer’s will was deliberately created to be flexible, leaving open the possibility of future generations revising the administration of the Pulitzer Prizes as needed. In his will, Mr. Pulitzer created an advisory board for the awards that wielded ultimate authority and the “power in its discretion to suspend or to change any subject or subjects, substituting, however, others in their places, if in the judgment of the board such suspension, changes, or substitutions shall be conducive to the public good or rendered advisable by public necessities, or by reason of change of time.”
Thus, the ‘Plan of the Award’ has been revised frequently and the number of awards has grown to 21 (as of 2020). Since 1975, the Board of the Pulitzer Prize has made all Prize decisions; prior to this point, the Pulitzer Board’s recommendations were ratified by a majority vote of the trustees of Columbia University. The formal announcement of the prizes, made each April, states that awards are officially made by the President of Columbia University on the recommendation of the Pulitzer Prize board. Today, the Pulitzer Board is composed of a variety of university professors, newspaper editors, and journalists, as well as others. The Board elects its own cohort to a maximum term of three years.