Aristotle’s Politics Book V: Factions and Changes of Government

Book V is concerned with the sources of change within governments, as well as the destruction and preservation of the various forms of government. As was said earlier in Book III, popular rule, which can be a form of tyranny, comes about under the belief that free people are also equal in every respect, and … Continue reading Aristotle’s Politics Book V: Factions and Changes of Government

Considering A Funeral Oration Speech in the Menexenus

The Menexenus is a brief dialogue that has come down to us as Platonic, though it is considered apocryphal in some traditions. However, Aristotle cites the text in several instances, perhaps confirming its authenticity. It shares kinship with Thucydides's famous "funeral oration speech" delivered by Pericles in Book of his text on the Peloponnesian War. … Continue reading Considering A Funeral Oration Speech in the Menexenus

Aristotle’s Politics Book III: The Limits of the City and Citizenship

In Book III, as we continue Aristotle's investigation into each form of government (Book II), we find that the whole question of each form of government must be approached through the lens of the city. And what is the city? A class of composite things. And the composite things of a whole are called parts, … Continue reading Aristotle’s Politics Book III: The Limits of the City and Citizenship

Dishonored

Dishonored (1931) Director: Josef Von Sternberg Josef Von Sternberg, the early auteur, co-wrote, edited, and directed this magnificent film. The story takes place in the midst of war-torn Europe during the First World War in Vienna, Austria. A prostitute (Frau Marie Kolverer) is approached by the Chief of Austria's Secret Service (disguised as a foreign … Continue reading Dishonored

Eyewitness Testimony in the Johannine Epistles

As with other New Testament texts, the authorship of the Johannine epistles is questionable. Tradition holds that "John the Evangelist," or John the Apostle of Jesus, wrote the letters. He is also traditionally the writer of the pseudo-gnostic text, the Gospel of John which addresses questions of certainty regarding the truth of the miracles of … Continue reading Eyewitness Testimony in the Johannine Epistles

The Question of Scriptural Authority in Peter’s Second Epistle

Like the first epistle of Apostle Peter, the authorship of the second letter is dubious at best. Doubt about the authenticity of the letter date back to Origen. One point of consideration, and perhaps an argument against the authorship of the Apostle Peter, is that he notes that his death is imminent, as Jesus apparently … Continue reading The Question of Scriptural Authority in Peter’s Second Epistle