The Plantagenets: Edward I “Longshanks” & “Hammer of the Scots” (1272-1307)

In contrast to his father, Henry III, few English monarchs have had such extensive leadership training and military preparation as Edward I. He was thirty-three years old when his father died, and by that point he had experienced the bitter taste of defeat as well as the definitive victory over Simon de Montfort during the … Continue reading The Plantagenets: Edward I “Longshanks” & “Hammer of the Scots” (1272-1307)

What is the Book of Documents?

The "Shu-Jing," or the book sometimes translated as "The Book of Documents," is an obscure compilation of speeches and records of major political conversations dating back to Confucian China. The speeches typically take place between a king/emperor and his ministers. Tradition holds that Confucius, himself, compiled the text. It was revised and re-worked over time … Continue reading What is the Book of Documents?

Notes on Charles Perrault’s Fairy Tales

I recently read through a few of the popular French fairy tales compiled, written, and re-told by Charles Perrault. Little Red Riding HoodPerrault's tale is about pretty country girl whom every called little red riding hood because of her red hood. One day, her mother bakes her some girdle cakes to bring to her grandmother … Continue reading Notes on Charles Perrault’s Fairy Tales

Roman Britain – Claudius Invades Britannia (AD 43) & the End of Roman Britain

Nearly a hundred years passed since Julius Caesar launched Rome's inaugural skirmish into Britannia. During the course of that time Rome had decidedly degenerated into an imperial rulership. Julius Caesar was assassinated by his political opponents -he was stabbed to death on the floor of the Senate on March 15 in 44 BC. Following his … Continue reading Roman Britain – Claudius Invades Britannia (AD 43) & the End of Roman Britain

Roman Britain – Julius Caesar Invades Britannia (55-54 BC)

Most British history begins with the Romans. Winston Churchill opens his History of English Speaking Peoples with “In the summer of the Roman year 699, now described as the year 55 before the birth of Christ, the Proconsul of Gaul, Gaius Julius Caesar, turned his gaze upon Britain” (1). But before turning his gaze Britain, … Continue reading Roman Britain – Julius Caesar Invades Britannia (55-54 BC)