On the Definitions, Postulates, and Common Notions of Euclid’s Elements

Euclid's Elements ("Stoikheîon") is the foundational text of classical, axiomatic, and deductive geometry ("earth-measurement"). The Elements is composed of thirteen books, each filled with propositions that beautifully unfold a theory of number, shape, proportion, and measurability. The Elements was the essential geomtery textbook for nearly 2,000 years thanks to the preservation efforts of the Byzantines, … Continue reading On the Definitions, Postulates, and Common Notions of Euclid’s Elements

The Sicilian Expedition: Alcibiades and Nicias in Thucydides’s Peloponnesian War (Books VI-VII)

Thucydides claims the Peloponnesian War is the greatest event or movement in human history, and the most important part of this great war takes place in Books VI-VII: The ill-fated Sicilian Expedition. The Sicilian Expedition represents the turning point in the war. Thucydides begins to explain the expedition by offering a history of the origins … Continue reading The Sicilian Expedition: Alcibiades and Nicias in Thucydides’s Peloponnesian War (Books VI-VII)

Perception in Aristotle’s On The Soul

Aristotle's On The Soul (or "De Anima" as the Latins transcribed it) addresses the question of what it means to be alive. It explores the self-organization of all natural and living things, from the perspective and perception of an observer. The text is a qualified addendum to the Physics, and its corollary is a short treatise … Continue reading Perception in Aristotle’s On The Soul

Eight Visions in Zechariah

Zechariah prophesies during the reign of Darius, emperor of Persia (after the Babylon was conquered by Persia). God's word comes unto Zechariah, and God blames the people of Israel's fathers for moral transgressions, and He commands the people of Israel to turn back to Him. Zechariah experiences a series of apocalyptic visions from God, with … Continue reading Eight Visions in Zechariah