Taking a step back for a moment, we return to the Viking pirates, the fearless thieves of the icy north who surprised much of Western Europe when their long-boats suddenly appeared out of the fog of Dark Ages, sacking coastal towns, raiding churches, slaughtering and conquering thousands. At the time, the early Christian kingdoms of … Continue reading Anglo-Saxon England, Part IV
The "Shu-Jing," or the book sometimes translated as "The Book of Documents," is an obscure compilation of speeches and records of major political conversations dating back to Confucian China. The speeches typically take place between a king/emperor and his ministers. Tradition holds that Confucius, himself, compiled the text. It was revised and re-worked over time … Continue reading What is the Book of Documents?
After the death of Alfred The Great, his bloodline would produce a series of warrior kings that would conquer the Danes and dominate the British isle. The dream of a unified Aengla Land would fall to his son Edward "The Elder." Edward continued his father's uncompromising resistance to the Danes, and he gained ground against … Continue reading Anglo-Saxon England, Part III
"I desired to live worthily as long as I lived, and to leave after my life, to the men who should come after me, the memory of me in good works"-Author's note in Alfred's translation of Boethius's On The Consolation of Philosophy Alfred (or "Aelfred) is the only king of England ever to be given … Continue reading Alfred the Great (871-899)
With the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons, a slough of changes took effect across Britain. Old English replaced Latin as the lingua franca, the island of Brittania was renamed Aengla Land after the Angles, and perhaps most significantly, there was a political shift. The Saxons brought with them the idea of kingship by consent. That is, … Continue reading Anglo-Saxon England, Part II
After the decline and fall of the Roman Empire, first spurred by the Visigothic sack of Rome in AD 410 followed by the collapse of the western Empire in AD 476, a cloud of darkness overcame the island of Britain. Very little writing or culture emerged as the world of the Britons became immersed in … Continue reading Anglo-Saxon England, Part I