My essays are listed by approximate publication date or author’s general period of activity

The New Testament (c. 1st – 3rd centuries AD)
Thoughts on the “Newness” of the New Testament
Where Did The New Testament Come From?
Notes on the Twelve Apostles of Jesus
The Story of the King James Bible
Political Theology in the Bible: An Exegesis

Gospel of Matthew
Matthew Chapter 5-7: The Sermon on the Mount
Comparing the Death of Jesus in the Four Gospels

Gospel of Mark
Comparing the Death of Jesus in the Four Gospels

Gospel of Luke
Comparing the Death of Jesus in the Four Gospels
Notes on Luke-Acts

Gospel of John
Comparing the Death of Jesus in the Four Gospels
On the Logos in the Gospel of John

Acts of the Apostles
Notes on Luke-Acts

Epistle to the Romans
The Law in Paul’s Epistle to the Romans

1st Epistle to the Corinthians
Discord in the Early Church: Paul’s Letters to the Corinthians

2nd Epistle to the Corinthians
Discord in the Early Church: Paul’s Letters to the Corinthians

Epistle to the Galatians
Rejection of Mosaic Law in Galatians

Epistle to the Ephesians
Notes on Paul’s Letter to Ephesus

Epistle to the Philippians
Notes on Paul’s Letter to Philippi

Epistle to the Colossians
Notes on Paul’s Letter to Collossae

1st Epistle to the Thessolonians
Notes on Paul’s Two Letters to Thessolonica

2nd Epistle to the Thessolonians
Notes on Paul’s Two Letters to Thessolonica

1st Epistle to Timothy
On the Corpus Pastorale

2nd Epistle Timothy
On the Corpus Pastorale

Epistle to Titus
On the Corpus Pastorale

Epistle to Philemon
A Brief Note on Philemon

Epistle to the Hebrews
“Jesus As Superior To Moses” – Thoughts on Hebrews

Epistle of James
Thoughts on the Epistle of James

1st Epistle of Peter
Peter’s Message in His First Epistle

2nd Epistle of Peter
The Question of Scriptural Authority in Peter’s Second Epistle

1st Epistle of John
Eyewitness Testimony in the Johannine Epistles

2nd Epistle of John
Eyewitness Testimony in the Johannine Epistles

3rd Epistle of John
Eyewitness Testimony in the Johannine Epistles

Epistle of Jude
Notes on the Unusual Epistle of Jude

A Vision of Horror and Apocalypse in John’s Revelation

Selections from the Apocrypha, Gnostics, and texts from the Nag Hammadi Library
The Story of the Nag Hammadi Library
The Story of the Dead Sea Scrolls

The Shepherd of Hermas
Thoughts on the Shepherd of Hermas

The Epistle of Barnabas
Notes on the Epistle of Barnabas

The Gospel of Philip
Mary Magdalene in the Gospel of Philip

The Gospel of Thomas
Thoughts on the Gospel of Thomas

The Apocalypse of Peter
Two Texts Called The Apocalypse of Peter

1 Clement
On Clement’s Letter to the Corinthians

Thoughts on the Didache

Clement of Rome (Apostolic Father, c. 1st century AD)
On Clement’s Letter to the Corinthians

Ignatius of Antioch (Apostolic Father, c. 2nd century AD)
On Ignatius’s Seven Epistles

Polycarp of Smyrna (Apostolic Father, c. AD 69 – 155)
On Polycarp’s Epistle to the Philippians

Papias of Hierapolis (Apostolic Father, c. AD 60 – 130)
Notes on the Fragments of Papias

Josephus (c. AD 37 – 100)
Jesus and John the Baptist Briefly Mentioned in Josephus

Justin Martyr (c. AD 100 – 165)
An Attempted Union of Hellenism and Christianity in Justin Martyr’s First Apology
Christianity Contra Judaism in Justin Martyr’s Dialogue with Trypho

Clement of Alexandria (Church Father, c. AD 150 – 215)
Clement’s Attack on Hellenism

Irenaeus of Lyon (Church Father, c. AD 130 – 202)
Irenaeus’s Attack on Heresy

Tertullian (Church Father, c. AD 155 – 220)
Who Is Tertullian?

Origen of Alexandria (Church Father, c. AD 184 – 253)
On Origen’s First Principles

Athanasius of Alexandria (Church Father, c. AD 296/298 – 373)
On Athanasius’s “On The Incarnation of the Word”
Thoughts on Asceticism in Athanasius’s Life of Antony

Eusebius (Church Father, c. AD 260/265 – 339/340)
On Eusebius’s Ecclesiastical History and the Origins of the Gospels

Enneads by Plotinus (c. AD 3rd century)

St. Ambrose (Church Doctor, c. AD 340 – 397)
Brief Notes on the Life of Saint Ambrose, Bishop of Milan

Saint Augustine (Church Doctor, AD 354 – 430)
Who is Saint Augustine of Hippo?
Wrestling with Divine Epistemology in Saint Augustine’s Confessions, Book I
Reflections on St. Augustine’s Moment of Conversion
Saint Augustine on Time
City of God
History, Providence, and Progress in Saint Augustine’s City of God
On the Free Choice of the Will
Considering Theodicy in St. Augustine “On the Free Choice of the Will”

St. Jerome (Church Doctor, c. AD 342/347 – 420)
The Story of Jerome’s Vulgate

The Nicene Creed (AD 325 – 381)
On The Nicene Creed

Porphyry (c. 234 – 305 AD)

Selections from Ordo urbium nobilium by Ausonius (c. AD 310 – 395)

St. Patrick’s Confessio (c. 5th century)
Thoughts on St. Patrick’s “Confessio”

Proclus (c. 5th century AD)

Iamblichus (c. 245 – 325 AD)

The Consolation of Philosophy by Boethius (c. AD 523)

The Code of Justinian (c. AD 534)

The Hymn by Bede (7th century)

Beowulf (c. 700–1000)

The Qu’ran (c. 610 – 632)

The Thousand and One Nights (c. 9th century)

The Rubaiyat (c. 10th century)

Avicenna (c. 980 – 1037)

Proslogion by Saint Anselm (c. 1077–1078)

Peter Abelard (1079-1142)

Tale of Genji (c. 11th century)

The Incoherence of the Philosophers (c. 11th century)

Averroes (c. 1126 – 1198)

The Guide for the Perplexed by Maimonides (c. 1190)

Niebelungenlied (c. 1200)

The Kaddish (c. 900- 13th century)

Chrétien de Troyes (c. 12th century)

Magna Carta
King John and Magna Carta (1199-1216)

St. Bonaventure (1221-1274)

Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)
The Divine Comedy (The Inferno, Purgatorio, Paradiso)
La Vita Nuova

The Golden Legend (c. 13th century)

The Poetic Edda (c. 13th century)

The Summa Theologica by Thomas Aquinas (c. 13th century)

Le Roman de la Rosa (c. 13th century)

Duns Scotus (c. 1265/66 – 1308)

Decameron by Giovanni Bocaccio (1313-1375)

Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1340s-1400)
Who Is Geoffrey Chaucer?

The Canterbury Tales
Chaucer’s Silence: On the General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales
“Make Of Two Sorrows One Perfect Joy” A Reading of The Knight’s Tale
The Idea of Requital in The Miller’s Tale
A Defense of Justice in The Reeve’s Tale
Notes on the Unfinished Cook’s Tale
A Story of “Joy after Woe” in The Man of Law’s Tale
The Wife of Bath’s Tale: Autobiography and Arthurian Parody
Intentionality in The Friar’s Tale
Aristotelian Mimesis: The Conflict Between the Friar and the Summoner
The Scholar’s Desire for Power: A Reading of The Clerk’s Tale
A Qualified Defense of Marriage in The Merchant’s Tale
On The (Interrupted) Squire’s Tale
Pity and Promises in the Franklin’s Tale
History Contra Poetics in The Physician’s Tale
Disingenuous Authorial Intent in The Pardoner’s Tale
The Principle of Exchange in The Shipman’s Tale
A Hollow Story of Martyrdom In The Prioress’s Tale
On Chaucerian Irony in the Tale of Sir Thopas
Deprivation and Excess in The Tale of Sir Thopas and The Tale of Melibee
Seventeen Tragic Biographies in The Monk’s Tale
“The latter ende of joye is wo” On The Dangerous Significance of Poetry in the Nun’s Priest’s Tale
Authorship in the Second Nun’s Tale
Trickery and Alchemy in the Canon’s Yeoman’s Tale
On The Wisdom of Silence in The Manciple’s Tale
An Appeal to Common Wisdom in the Final Tale: The Parson’s Tale

Revelations of Divine Love by Julian of Norwich (c. 14th – 15th centuries)

The Pearl Poet (14th century)

William Langland (1332-1386)

John Gower (1330-1408)

St. Catherine of Siena (1347-1380)

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (c. 14th century)

Christine de Pizan (1364-1430)

Le Morte D’Arthur by Sir Thomas Mallory (c. 15th century)

The Imitation of Christ by Thomas a Kempis (1418–1427)

The Trial of Joan of Arc (c. 1431)

Amadis de Gaula, by García Montalvo (1450-1505)

In Praise of Folly by Erasmus (1466-1536)

Leonardo de Vinci’s Notebooks (1442-1519)

Journal of Christopher Columbus (1451-1506)

Orlando Furioso by Ludovico Ariosto (1474–1533)

A Short Account of the Destruction of Indies by Bartolome de las Casas (1484-1566)

Sir Thomas More (1478-1535)
History of King Richard III
A Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation

Machiavelli (1469-1527)
The Prince
The Discourses on Livy
Florentine Histories

On The Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres by Copernicus (1473-1543)

The 95 Theses by Martin Luther (1483-1546)

Gargantua & Pantagruel Pentology by Francois Rabelais (1483/1494-1553)
The Absurd World of Pantagruel

The Nuremberg Chronicle (c. 15th century)

The Lives of the Artists by Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574)

The Book of Martyrs by John Foxe (1516/1517–1587)

The Lusiads (1524/1525 – 1580)

Missa Papae Marcelli by Giovanni Palestrina (1525–1594)

Essays by Montaigne (1533-1592)

Poems by Anne Locke (1533–1590)

Introduction to the Analytical Art by Francois Viete (1540–1603)

Poems of St. John of the Cross (1542-1591)

De Magnete by William Gilbert (c. 1544–1603)

Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)

Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616)
Who Is Miguel de Cervantes?
When Poetry Conquers Philosophy: Reflections on Don Quixote
On Authorship in Don Quixote

The New Atlantis by Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

Lope de Vega (1562–1635)

William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
Who Is William Shakespeare?
On Stephen Greenblatt’s “Will in the World”

Shakespeare’s Comedies
All’s Well That Ends Well
As You Like It
As You Like It, Act I
As You Like It, Act II
“All The World’s A Stage” Considered
The Comedy of Errors
Love’s Labour’s Lost
Measure for Measure
The Merchant of Venice
The Merry Wives of Windsor
A Midsummer Night’s Dream
Much Ado About Nothing
The Taming of the Shrew
The Tempest
The Two Gentlemen of Verona
The Winter’s Tale

Shakespeare’s Tragedies
Antony and Cleopatra
Introduction to Hamlet
“Crawling Between Earth and Heaven:” A Reading of Hamlet
Reflections on Norway, Denmark, and Hamlet’s Ghost
Julius Caesar
King Lear
Introduction to Macbeth
A Classical Hero in the Modern World: A Reading of Macbeth
“Tomorrow and Tomorrow and Tomorrow” Considered
Examining the Thanes in Shakespeare’s Macbeth
Comparing Clytemnestra and Lady Macbeth
On Children and Natural Limits in Shakespeare’s Macbeth
Romeo and Juliet
Timon of Athens
Titus Andronicus
Troilus and Cressida

Shakespeare’s Histories
Henry IV Part I
Henry IV Part II
Henry V
Henry VI Part I
Henry VI Part II
Henry VI Part III
Henry VIII
King John
Richard II
Richard III

Other Shakespeare (Not Included in the First Folio)
The Two Noble Kinsmen

The Faerie Queene by Edmund Spenser (1552/1553–1599)

Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593)

Ben Jonson (1572-1637)
Philip Sidney

Galileo Galilei (1564–1642)
Starry Messenger
Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems

L’Orfeo by Claudio Monteverdi (1567–1643)

Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
New Astronomy
Harmony of the Worlds

De Motu Cordis by William Harvey (1578–1657)

Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)

Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
Musicae Compendium
Le Monde
Discourse on the Method
Meditations on First Philosophy
Principles of Philosophy

“A Crown of Sonnets Dedicated to Love” by Lady Mary Wroth (1587 – 1651/1653)

The Book of Common Prayer (c. 16th century)

Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained by John Milton (1608–1674)

Poems by Anne Bradstreet (1612–1672)

Maxims by Francois de la Rochefocauld (1613–1680)

Essays by Edme Marriott (1620–1684)

Fables by Jean de la Fontaine (1621-1695)

Poems by Andrew Marvell (1621–1678)

Moliere (1623-1677)

Pensees by Pascal (1623–1662)

Pilgrim’s Progress by John Bunyan (1628–1688)
Thoughts on Pilgrim’s Progress

Treatise on Light by Christiaan Huygens (1629–1695)

John Dryden (1631-1700)

John Locke (1632–1704)
A Letter Concerning Toleration
Two Treatises of Government
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

Nicolas Malebranche (1638–1715)

Andromache by Racine (1639-1699)

Isaac Newton (1643-1727)
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica

The Narrow Road to the Deep North by Matsuo Bashō (1644–1694)

Daniel Defoe (1660–1731)
Robinson Crusoe
Robinson Crusoe’s Diary of Survivalism
Moll Flanders

Jonathan Swift (1667–1745)
Who Is Jonathan Swift?
“A Tale Of A Tub” and “The Battle of the Books” (1704)
Thoughts on “A Tale Of A Tub” and the “Battle of the Books”
An Argument Against Abolishing Christianity (1708)
Gulliver’s Travels (1726)
Jonathan Swift and the Idea of Satire
Whither Gulliver? Reflections on Gulliver’s Travels
A Modest Proposal (1729)
Disentangling Irony in Jonathan Swift’s “A Modest Proposal”

The Motion of the Stretched String by Brook Taylor (1685-1731)

Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750)
St. Matthew Passion

Principles of Human Knowledge by Berkeley (1685–1753)

“The Fahrenheit Scale” by Daniel Fahrenheit (1686-1736)

Alexander Pope (1688–1744)
Rape of the Lock
Essay on Man

Lord Chesterfield’s Letters (1694-1773)

Voltaire (1694 – 30 May 1778)
Who Is Voltaire?
On Suffering in Voltaire’s Candide
Treatise on Tolerance

“On the Vibrating String” By Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782)

Observations on Electrical Phenomena Jean-Antoine Nollet (1700-1770)

Jonathan Edwards (1703–1758)

The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)

Euler’s writings on Mr. Bernoulli (1707-1783)

Samuel Johnson (1709-1784)

David Hume (1711-1776)
A Treatise of Human Nature
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion

Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
The Social Contract
Discourse on the Arts and Sciences
Discourse on Inequality
Emile, or On Education
Reveries of a Solitary Walker

Rameau’s Nephew by Denis Diderot (1713–1784)

Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)
Observations on the Feelings of the Beautiful and the Sublime
On The Different Races of Man
Critique of Pure Reason
Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics
An Answer to the Question “What Is Enlightenment?”
Idea For A Universal History With A Cosmopolitan Purpose
Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals

The Memoirs of Giacomo Casanova (1725–1798)

The New Science by Vico (c. 1725)

Extracts from the Lectures on Chemical Elements by Joseph Black (1728–1799)

Edmund Burke (1729-1797)
A Vindication of Natural Society
Reflections on the Revolution in France

Quartets by Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)

Common Sense and The Rights of Man by Thomas Paine (1737-1809)

The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon (1737-1794)

Elements of Chemistry by Antoine Lavoisier (1743–1794)

“Zoological Philosophy” by Jean-Baptiste Lamarcke (1744-1829)

Essay on Electricity by Alessandra Volta (1745–1827)

Olaudah Equiano (1745-1797)

Excerpt from the Essay on Static Chemicals by Claude Berthollet (1748–1822)

Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)

Tom Jones by Henry Fielding (c. 1749)
A Note on Fortune and Fate in Henry Fielding’s Tom Jones
Reflections on Henry Fielding’s Tom Jones, Book I
Reflections on Henry Fielding’s Tom Jones, Book II
Reflections on Henry Fielding’s Tom Jones, Book III
Reflections on Henry Fielding’s Tom Jones, Book IV

Faust by Goethe (1749-1832)

Poems by Phyllis Wheatley (1753-1784)

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791)
Don Giovanni

William Blake (1757-1827)

Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)

Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805)

Robert Burns (1759-1796)
The Story Behind “Auld Lang Syne”

Extracts From a New System Chemical Philosophy by John Dalton (1766–1844)

Symphonies by Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827)

William Wordsworth (1770-1850)

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834)

“On the Nature of Light and Electricity” by Thomas Young (1773-1829)

Essays by Andre-Marie Ampere (1775-1836)

Letters From A Pennsylvania Farmer by John Dickinson (1767-1768)

Life of Black Hawk, or Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak (1767-1838)

Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith (c. 1776)

The United States Declaration of Independence (1776)

The Articles of Confederation (c. 1777)

Constitution of the United States of America (1788)

Déclaration des droits de l’homme et du citoyen (The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen) (1789)

“Essay on a Manner Determining the Relative Masses of the Elementary Molecules of Bodies” by Amedeo Avogadro (1776-1856)

“On the Expansion of Gases by Heat” & “Memoir on the Combination of Gaseous Substances with Each Other” by Joseph-Louis Gay Lussac (1778–1850)

The World As Will and Representation by Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860)

“Experimental Researches in Electricity” by Michael Faraday (1791–1867)

Life of Samuel Johnson by Boswell (c. 1791)

Theory of Parallels by Nikolai Lobachevsky (1792-1856)

Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822)

Thomas Carlyle on the French Revolution (1795-1881)

Songs by Franz Schubert (1797–1828)

Auguste Comte (1798-1857)

Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849)
The Fall of the House of Usher
The Murders in the Rue Morgue
The Pit and the Pendulum
The Tell-Tale Heart
The Bells
The Raven

The Book of Mormon (c. 19th century)

George Bancroft’s History of the United States (1800-1891)

The Journals of Lewis and Clark (1803-1806)

Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)

John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882)

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865)

Alfred Lord Tennyson (1809-1892)

Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
The Voyage of the Beagle
On The Origin of Species
The Descent of Man

Writings of Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865)

Grimm’s Fairy Tales (c. 1812)

Richard Wagner (1813-1883)

Karl Marx (1813-1883)
On The Jewish Question
Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844
The German Ideology
The Communist Manifesto

Journals and Letters of David Livingstone (1813-1873)

Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855)
On the Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to Socrates
Fear and Trembling
Philosophical Fragments
The Concept of Anxiety
The Sickness Unto Death

Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862)

The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt (1818-1897)

Walt Whitman (1819-1892)

First Principles of a New System of Philosophy by Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

Cellular Pathology Lectures by Rudolf Virchow (1821–1902)

Les Fleurs de Mal by Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867)

“Experiments with Plant Hybridization” by Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)

The Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885)

Mary Chestnuts Diaries of the Civil War (1823-1886)

“Letter to Professor S. de Luca” by Stanislau Canizzaro (1826–1910)

Emily Dickinson (1830-1886)

James Clerk Maxwell on Farady (1831-1879)

Essay on the Theory of Numbers by Richard Dedekind (1831-1916)

Art” by Eduoard Manet (1832-1883)

“The Periodic Law of Chemical Elements” by Dmitri Mendeleev (1834–1907)

Autobiography of Mark Twain Volumes I-II (1835-1910)

The Gospel of Wealth (Essay) by Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919)

Henry Adams (1838-1918)
History of the United States During the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson
The Education of Henry Adams

Writings of John Muir (1838-1914)

The Varieties of Religious Experience, Pragmatism by William James (1842-1910)

Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
The Birth of Tragedy
On Truth and Lies In A Nonmoral Sense
Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks
Untimely Meditations
Human, All Too Human
The Dawn
The Gay Science
Thus Spake Zarathustra
Beyond Good and Evil
On The Genealogy of Morals
Twilight of the Idols
The Antichrist
Ecce Homo

Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (c. 1845)

Scientific Autobiography by Max Planck (1848-1947)

The Letters of Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890)

Arthur Rimbaud (1854-1891)

Up From Slavery by Booker T. Washington (1856-1915)

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

“Cathode Rays” by J.J. Thompson (1856-1940)

Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913)

Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929)

Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
The Elementary Forms of Religious Life

An Introduction to Metaphysics by Henri Bergson (1859-1941)

“The Crisis of the European Sciences” by Edmund Husserl (1859-1938)

Experience and Education by John Dewey (1859-1952)

Science and the Modern World, Introduction to Mathematics by Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947)

Essays by Theodor Boveri (1862-1915)

George Santayana (1863-1952)

The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism by Max Weber (1864-1920)

“Space and Time by Hermann Minkowski (1864-1909)

“Evolution and Genetics” by Thomas Morgan (1866-1945)

“The Science and Philosophy of the Organism” by Hans Driesch (1867–1941)

The Souls of Black Folk by W.E.B. DuBois (1868-1963)

“The Electron” by Robert Andrews Millikan (1868-1953)

Mohandes Gandhi (1869-1948)

Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869-1935)

“The Structure of the Atom” by Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937)

Poems by Paul Valery (1871-1945)

Bertrand Russell (1872-1970)
An Introduction Mathematical Philosophy
The Problems of Philosophy

Amy Lowell Poetry (1874-1925)

G.K. Chesterton (1874-1936)
The Man Who Was Thursday
The Everlasting Man

Robert Frost (1874-1963)

Winston Churchill (1874-1965)
The World Crisis
The Second World War
The History of English Speaking Peoples

Carl Jung (1875-1961)

Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965)

Essays by Walter Sutton (1877-1916)

G.H. Hardy on Gregor Mendel (1877–1947)

Abraham Lincoln The War Years by Carl Sandburg (1878-1969)

Wallace Stevens (1879-1955)

Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
The General Theory of Relativity
The Special Theory of Relativity
The World as I See It
Ideas and Opinions
The Evolution of Physics
Why Socialism?

Essays in Humanism

The Story of My Life by Helen Keller (1880-1968)

The Decline of the West by Oswald Spengler (1880-1936)

Symphonies of Psalms by Igor Stravisnky (1882–1971)

William Carlos Williams (1883-1963)

The Revolt of the Masses by Jose Ortega y Gassett (1883-1955)

The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money by John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946)

Ezra Pound’s Cantos (1885-1972)

Atomic Theory by Niels Bohr (1885-1962)

The Word of God and the Word of Man by Karl Barth (1886-1968)

What Is Life? & “Four Lectures of Wave Mechanics” by Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961)

Essays by Marcel Duchamps (1887-1968)

Marianne Moore (1887-1972)

Eugene O’Neill (1888-1953)

T.S. Eliot (1888-1965)

Carl Schmitt (1888-1985)

Martin Heidegger (1889-1976)
Being and Time
Introduction to Metaphysics
The Question Concerning Technology

The Philosophical Investigations by Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951)

The Idea of History by R.G. Collingwood (1889-1943)

The Crusade in Europe by Dwight Eisenhower (1890-1969)

Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937)

Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892-1950)

Reinhold Niebuhr (1892-1971)

“Matter Waves” by Louisde Broglie (1892-1987)

The Little Red Book by Mao Zedong (1893-1976)

Native American Chants and Songs (compiled by the Norton Anthology)

The Oregon Trail: Sketches of Prairie and Rocky-Mountain Life by Francis Parkman, Jr. (1849)

Life Among the Piutes by Sarah Winnemucca (1883)

e. e. cummings (1894-1962)

Cybernetics by Norbert Wiener (1894-1964)

Economics in One Lesson by Henry Hazlitt (1894-1993)

The Greek Myths by Robert Graves (1895-1985)

Max Horkheimer (1895-1973)

C.S. Lewis (1898-1963)
The Screwtape Letters
The Problem of Pain
Mere Christianity
The Case for Christianity
The Abolition of Man
The Space Trilogy
The Great Divorce

Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979)

The Road To Serfdom by Friedrich Hayek (1899-1992)

Essays by Francois Jacob and Jacques Monod (c. 20th century)

Essays by George Beadle and Edward Tatum (c. 20th century)

Essays by James Watson and Francis Crick (c. 20th century)

Leo Strauss (1899-1973)
The Teaching of Aristotle’s Politics

Hans-Georg Gadamer (1900-2002)

Physics and Philosophy by Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976)

Langston Hughes (1901-1967)

Alexandre Kojève (1902-1968)

Karl Popper (1902-1994)
The Poverty of Historicism
The Open Society and Its Enemies

Theodor W. Adorno (1903-1969)

American Diplomacy by George F. Kennan (1904-2005)

Beyond Freedom and Dignity by B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

The Hero With A Thousand Faces by Joseph Campbell (1904-1987)

Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980)
No Exit
Being and Nothingness

Ayn Rand (1905-1982)
The Fountainhead
Atlas Shrugged
The Virtue of Selfishness

Lionel Trilling (1905-1975)

The Cost of Discipleship by Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-1945)

Hannah Arendt (1906-1975)
The Origins of Totalitarianism
The Human Condition
Eichmann in Jerusalem
On Revolution

W.H. Auden (1907-1973)

Theodore Roethke (1908-1963)

The Phenomenology of Perception by Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961)

Tristes Tropiques by Claude Levi-Strauss (1908-2008)

The Affluent Society by John Kenneth Galbraith (1908-2006)

The Second Sex by Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986)

Structural Anthropology by Claude Levi-Strauss (1908-2009)

Simone Weil (1909-1943)
The Need for Roots
The Notebooks of Simone Weil

Isaiah Berlin (1909-1997)
Against The Current: Essays in the History of Ideas

Ideas Have Consequences by Richard Weaver (1910-1963)

Boy Scouts of America Handbook (1910)

Elizabeth Bishop (1911-1979)

Capitalism and Freedom by Milton Friedman (1912-2006)

Aimé Césaire (1913-2008)

Albert Camus (1913-1960)
The Stranger
The Plague

Roland Barthes (1915-1980)

Shelby Foote’s Narrative of the Civil War (1916-2005)

Robert Lowell (1917-1977)

Gwendolyn Brooks (1917-2000)

Eric Hobsbawm (1917-2012)

Richard Feynman (1918-1988)
Six Easy Pieces: Essentials of Physics Explained by Its Most Brilliant Teacher

Doris Lessing (1919-2013)

Russel Kirk (1918-1994)
The Conservative Mind
The Roots of American Order

Black Like Me by John Howard Griffin (1920-1980)

A Theory of Justice by John Rawls (1921-2002)

Thomas Kuhn (1922-1992)

Erving Goffman (1922-1982)

René Girard (1923-2015)

The Great War and Modern Memory by Paul Fussell (1924-2012)

Gilles Deleuze (1925-1995)
Capitalism and Schizophrenia: Anti-Oedipus

William F. Buckley (1925-2008)
God and Man at Yale
Up From Liberalism

Flannery O’Connor (1925-1964)

Frantz Fanon (1925-1961)

Ways of Seeing by John Berger (1926-2017)

Michel Foucault (1926-1984)
The Archaeology of Knowledge
Madness and Civilization
Discipline and Punish
The History of Sexuality

“The Clash of Civilizations” by Samuel P. Huntington (1927-2008)

Noam Chomsky (1928-Present)

Letter From Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King jr. (1929-1968)

Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank (1929-1929)

Jürgen Habermas (1929-Present)

Jean Baudrillard (1929-2007)

Alasdair MacIntyre (1929-Present)

E. O. Wilson (1929-Present)

The Anxiety of Influence by Harold Bloom (1930-2019)

Allan Bloom (1930-1992)

Jacques Derrida (1930-2004)
Speech and Phenomena
Of Grammatology
Writing and Difference

Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste by Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002)

Charles Taylor (1931-Present)

Richard Rorty (1931-2007)

Alvin Plantinga (1932-Present)

Susan Sontag (1933-2004)
On Photography
Against Interpretation
Illness As Metaphor
Regarding the Pain of Others
Styles of Radical Will
In America

Mary Oliver (1935-2019)

Imagining Numbers by Barry Mazur (1937-Present)

Alain Badiou (1937-Present)

Thomas Nagel (1937-Present)

Robert Nozick (1938-2002)

Richard Dawkins (1941-Present)

A Brief History of Time by Stephen Hawking (1942-2018)

Daniel Dennett (1942-Present)

John McDowell (1942-Present)

Essays by Joel Sussman (1943-Present)

Louise Glück’s A Village Life (1943-Present)

Stephen Greenblatt (1943-Present)
Will in the World: How Shakespeare Became Shakespeare (2004)
On Stephen Greenblatt’s “Will in the World”
The Swerve: How The World Became Modern (2011)

Roger Scruton (1944-2020)

The United Nations Charter (c. 1945)

Peter Singer (1946-Present)

Martha Nussbaum (1947-Present)

Pierre Manent (1949-Present)
Metamorphoses of the City
An Intellectual History of Liberalism

Slavoj Zizek (1949-Present)
The Sublime Object of Ideology

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