Ancients

Listed by approximate publication date or author’s general period of activity.
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The Epic of Gilgamesh (c. 2100 BC)
The Walls of Gilgamesh
Notes on the Origins of the Epic of Gilgamesh

The Code of Hammurabi (c. 18th century BC)
Thoughts on the Code of Hammurabi

The Enuma Elish (c. 17th century BC)
Notes on the Enuma Elish

The Egyptian Book of the Dead (c. 1550 BC)
The Trial of the Heart: Initial Thoughts on the Egyptian Book of the Dead

The Gathas by Zarathustra (c. 1500 BC – 1000 BC)
An Introduction to the Gathas

Tanakh, or Hebrew Bible (c. 8th century BC – 1st century BC)
Reason and Revelation in the Bible
Notes on the Context of the Tanakh
Where did the Hebrew Bible Come From?
Political Theology in the Bible: An Exegesis
The Torah
Genesis
Genesis III: In Defense of the Serpent
Genesis I: The Seven Days of Creation Examined
Genesis I-III: The Birth of Law

Genesis XI: The Lord versus the City of Man
Exodus
What is Mosaic Law?
Moses as Lawgiver
Leviticus
Notes on Leviticus
Numbers
Notes on Numbers
Deuteronomy
The Words of Moses
What Is The Old Testament?

Nevi’im (Prophets)
Former Prophets
Joshua
Joshua: A Book of Conquest
Judges
Reflections on Judges
1 & 2 Samuel
I Samuel Chapters 8-14: Israel’s Demand for a King
1 & 2 Kings
Saul Weeps, David Dances, And Solomon Judges
Latter Prophets
Isaiah
Prophecy and Apocalypse in Isaiah
Jeremiah
Thoughts on Jeremiah
Ezekiel
Thoughts on Ezekiel
Minor Prophets
Hosea
Infidelity in Hosea
Joel
Plague and Drought in Joel
Amos
Notes on Amos
Obadiah
The Reckoning of Edom in Obadiah
Jonah
Notes on Jonah in Nineveh
Further Consideration of Jonah
Micah
Notes on Micah
Nahum
Notes on Nahum
Habakkuk
The Just Shall Live By His Faith: Habakkuk Considered
Zephaniah
“The Day of the Lord” in Zephaniah
Haggai
Haggai: A Plea To Rebuild the Temple
Zechariah
Eight Visions in Zechariah
Malachi
The Messenger in Malachi

Ketuvim (Writings)
Psalms
In Consideration of Psalms
“Through the Valley of the Shadow of Death” – On Psalm 23
Proverbs
Thoughts on the Book of Proverbs
Job
Theodicy in the Book of Job
Song of Songs
In Appreciation of the Song of Songs
Ruth
The Harvest of Ruth
Lamentations
Sorrow, Anger, and Hope in Lamentations
Ecclesiastes
Qohelet’s Somber Reflections
Esther
The Persian Fantasy of Esther
Daniel
Daniel: A Book of Dreams and Dark Prophecy
Ezra
Thoughts on Ezra-Nehemiah
Nehemiah
Thoughts on Ezra-Nehemiah
1 & 2 Chronicles
Thoughts on Chronicles

Biblical Apocrypha
1 & 2 Esdras
Notes on 1 and 2 Esdras
Tobit
Tobit: An Apocryphal Romance
Judith
Judith: Israel’s Great Heroine
Rest of Esther
Brief Notes on the Rest of Esther
Wisdom
Thoughts on the Book of Wisdom
Ecclesiasticus/Sirach
Thoughts on Wisdom in Ecclesiasticus
Baruch and the Epistle of Jeremy
Notes on the Book of Baruch and the Epistle of Jeremy
Song of the Three Children
Notes on Additions to the Book of Daniel
Story of Susanna
Susanna: An Apocryphal Fable
The Idol Bel and the Dragon
Notes on Additions to the Book of Daniel
Prayer of Manasseh
Thoughts on the Prayer of Manasseh
1 & 2 Maccabees
The Maccabean Revolt and the Birth of Hanukkah

Homer (c. 750 BC)
Iliad
Political Philosophy in the Iliad
On the Homeric Question
What is the Rage of Achilles?
Thoughts on Odysseus and Achilles
On the Homeric Gods
Persuading Achilles: Books IX, XVI, XXIV Considered
The Iliad and the Odyssey: Two Proems Compared
Book XVIII of the Iliad: Examining the Shield of Achilles

Odyssey
On the Homeric Question
Thoughts on Odysseus and Achilles
Notes on the Telemachia, Books I-IV
On the Homeric Gods
Nature and Order in Homer
The Iliad and the Odyssey: Two Proems Compared
Phemius and Demodocus: Two Bards Considered
Notes on Odysseus’s Tale to the Phaeacians
Books X-XI: Revisiting Odysseus’s Descent into Hades
Hymns
Commentary on the Form of the “Homeric Hymns”

Hesiod (c. 750 BC)
Works and Days
Two Myths in Hesiod’s Works and Days
Comparing Virgil’s Georgics with Hesiod’s Works and Days

Theogony
Notes on Hesiod

The Vedas (c. 1500 BC – 900 BC)
The Rig Veda
Introduction to the Rig Veda
Notes on Creation and Death in the Rig Veda

The Upanishads (c. 600 BC – 300 AD)
Introduction to the Upanishads
Notes on the Isha Upanishad
What is the Teaching of the Upanishads?
Six Questions in the Prana Upanishad

Fables by Aesop (c. 6th century BC)
What Is A Fable?

The Tao Te Ching by Lao Tzu (c. 6th century BC)
Important Reflections on the Tao Te Ching

Sappho (fragments, c. 630 BC – 570 BC)
Notes on Sappho
Simonides
(fragments, c. 556 BC – 468 BC)
Who Is Simonides?
Pindar (fragments, c. 518 BC – 438 BC)
Who Is Pindar? What Is An Ode?

Histories by Herodotus (c. 484 BC – 425 BC)
On Herodotus
The Purpose of the Histories: Notes on Book I
The Empires of Croesus and Cyrus
The Rise of Egypt: Notes on Book II
Egypt, Persia, and the New Regime: Book III
Darius and the New Persian Regime
The Battle of Marathon: Book VI
Xerxes, Thermopylae, and Salamis: Books VII – IX
Notes on Athenian Democracy
What Is History?
What Was The Cause of The Persian Wars?
An Inquiry into Herodotus’s Project
Notes on History

The Presocratic Fragments (fragments, c. 6th – 5th centuries BC)
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Thales
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Pythagoras
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Heraclitus
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Parmenides
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Empedocles
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Anaximander

On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Anaximenes
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Anaxagoras
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Democritus
Who Is Thales?
Who Is Pythagoras?
Who Is Heraclitus?

Aeschylus (c. 525/524 – 456/455 BC)
A Brief Note on Aeschylean Tragedy
The Persians
The Idea of the Enemy in Aeschylus’s The Persians
Seven Against Thebes
The Seven Against Thebes and The Phoenician Women Considered
The Suppliants
A Defense of Nomos in The Suppliants

The Oresteia (Agamemnon, The Libations Bearers, The Eumenides)
Dialectic in Agamemnon
The Oresteia: An Affirmation of the Noble Lie

Electra in Aeschylus vs. Euripides
Thoughts on Aeschylus

Comparing Clytemnestra and Lady Macbeth
Prometheus Bound
Notes on Aeschylus

Sophocles (c. 496/497 BC – 406/405 BC)
The Theban Plays (Oedipus Tyrannus, Oedipus at Colonus, Antigone)
Summary of the Oedipus Story
Oedipus and Greek Tragedy
Aristotle, Oedipus, and Greek Tragedy

Ajax
Fate Considered in Sophocles’s Ajax
The Women of Trachis
Notes on the Trachiniae
Electra

Notes on Sophocles’s Electra
Comparing Clytemnestra and Lady Macbeth
Philoctetes
The Question of “Deus Ex Machina” in Philoctetes

Euripides (c. 480 BC – 406 BC)
The Context of the Greek Tragedians
What Is The Chorus in Greek Tragedy?
Alcetis
On Euripides’s Alcestis
Medea
On The Medea
Heracleidae
Tragedy and Patriotism in Euripides’s Heracleidae
Hippolytus
Oaths and Truth-Telling in Hippolytus
Andromache
Thoughts on Andromache
Hecuba
What Is Tragic About Greek Tragedy? Euripides’s Hecuba Considered
The Suppliants
Thoughts on The Suppliants
Electra
Electra in Aeschylus vs. Euripides
Comparing Clytemnestra and Lady Macbeth
Heracles
The Lack of Hamartia in Euripides’s Heracles
The Trojan Women
Brief Thoughts on The Trojan Women
Iphigenia in Tauris
Thoughts on Iphigenia in Tauris
Ion
Euripides and the Gods: Ion
Helen
Examining Euripides’s Helen
Phoenician Women
Thoughts on The Phoenician Women
Orestes
The Failure of Orestes
Bacchae
The Dangers of the Poets in The Bacchae
Iphiginaia in Aulis
The Tragedy of Mob-Rule: Iphigenia in Aulis
Rhesus
Brief Notes on the Rhesus
Cyclops
Euripides’s Opinion of Odysseus: The Cyclops Considered

The Peloponnesian War by Thucydides (c. 460 BC – 400 BC)
Thucydides on Greek Origins
Reflections on Thucydides

Thucydides on Pericles and the Plague
The Peloponnesian War, Book I: Setting The Stage for War
The Peloponnesian War, Book II: Proxy Wars and Pericles’s Funeral Oration
The Peloponnesian War, Book III: Invasion and Revolution
The Peloponnesian War, Book IV: Armistice and Mounting Losses
The Peloponnesian War, Book V: Battle Recommences and Melos Is Enslaved
The Peloponnesian War, Book VI: Sicily, Alcibiades, and the Hermae
The Peloponnesian War, Books VII-VIII: Athens in Decline and an Abrupt Ending
What Is A Eulogy? Ethos, Pathos, and Logos In Pericles’s Funeral Oration Speech
The Sicilian Expedition: Alcibiades and Nicias in Thucydides’s Peloponnesian War (Books VI-VII)

Aristophanes (c. 446 BC – 386 BC)
Who is Aristophanes?
Thoughts on Aristophanean Comedy
The Acharnians
Treason in the Acharnians
The Knights
Cleon Ridiculed in the Knights
The Clouds
Socrates Ridiculed in the Clouds
The Wasps
The Courts Ridiculed in the Wasps
The Peace
A Parody of Greek Mythology In The Peace
The Birds
Aristophanes’s The Birds: A New City in the Sky
Lysistrata
The War Between the Sexes in Lysistrata
Thezmorphorazuze
The Persecution of the Poets in Thesmophoriazusae
The Frogs
Dionysus’s Descent Into Hades In The Frogs
Ecclesiazusae
The Triumph of Socialism in the Assemblywomen
Wealth
The Worship of Wealth in the Plutos

Menander (fragments, c. 342/41 – 290 BC)
Dyskolos
Menander and Dyskolos
The Girl From Samos
Notes on the Samia

Plato (c. 428/427 or 424/423 BC – 348/347 BC)
Examining the Platonic Dialogues
On the Authorship of Plato
Mapping the Platonic Dialogues
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Socrates
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Plato
Apology
Thoughts on the Trial of Socrates and the Socratic Project
Thoughts on the Apology of Socrates
Crito

Notes on Plato’s Crito
Charmides
Thoughts on Plato’s Charmides
Laches
Initial Thoughts on Plato’s Laches
The Question of Courage in the Laches
Lysis
Socrates’s Failure In The Lysis
Euthyphro
Notes on Plato’s Euthyphro
Ion
The Problem of Rhapsody in Plato’s Ion
Greater Hippias
The Exploration of Beauty in the Greater Hippias
Lesser Hippias
On Truth and Lies in the Lesser Hippias
Gorgias
Thoughts On The Gorgias
The Gorgias, A Dialogue of War and Battle
Protagoras
The Examination of Virtue in the Protagoras
Meno
Socrates and Meno
Euthydemus
Thoughts on the Euthydemus
Euthydemus’s Form of Relativism
Cratylus

Cratylus: Plato’s Dialogue on Language
Phaedo

On the Significance of the Death of Socrates
Phaedrus
Initial Notes on Plato’s Phaedrus
Socrates and Phaedrus on Love
An Analysis of the Soul in the Phaedrus

The Soul in the Phaedrus and the Republic
Symposium
Thoughts on the Setting of Plato’s Symposium
The Symposium I: Phaedrus
The Symposium II: Pausanias
The Symposium III: Erixymachus, Aristophanes, Agathon, Socrates, and Alcibiades
What is Love in the Symposium?

The Republic
Plato’s Republic, Book I (Part I): Introduction
Plato’s Republic, Book I (Part II): Cephalus 

Plato’s Republic, Book I (Part III): Polemarchus
Plato’s Republic, Book I (Part IV): Thrasymachus
Plato’s Republic, Book II (Part I): Glaucon and Adeimantus
Plato’s Republic, Book II (Part II): The City In Speech
Plato’s Republic, Book III: The Noble Lie
Plato’s Republic, Book IV: The Cardinal Virtues
Plato’s Republic, Book V: Communism and the Philosopher King
Plato’s Republic, Book VI: The Defense of the Philosophers
Plato’s Republic, Book VII: “The Allegory of the Cave”
Plato’s Republic, Book VIII: The Decay of the Regimes
Plato’s Republic, Book IX: The Soul of the Tyrant
Plato’s Republic, Book X: The Poets and the Myth of Er
The Soul in the Phaedrus and the Republic
The Teaching of the Republic

Theaetetus
Outline of the Theaetetus
Why Theaetetus
A Note on Temporality in the Theaetetus
Parmenides
The Silence of Socrates: Plato’s Parmenides
Sophist
Considering Plato’s Sophist
Statesman

Thoughts on Plato’s Statesman
Philebus
Wandering Thoughts on the Philebus
Timaeus – Critias
Timaeus and the Likely Story
Laws
Plato’s Laws, Book I: The Divine Puppet
Plato’s Laws: Notes on Books II-IV

Apocryphal Platonic Dialogues
Thirteen Epistles
Notes on Plato’s Seventh Letter
Alcibiades I, Alcibiades II
On The First Alcibiades
On The Idea of Prayer in The Second Alcibiades
Epinomis
The Platonic Epinomis: A Sequel to the Laws
Menexenus
Considering A Funeral Oration Speech in the Menexenus
Hipparchus
On the Hipparchus, or Lovers of Gain
Lovers
Notes on Plato’s Lovers
Cleitophon
On the Cleitophon
Theages
On the Theages
Minos
What is Law in the Minos?

Xenophon (c. 430 BC – 355/354 BC)
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Xenophon
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Socrates
Education of Cyrus
Initial Thoughts on Xenophon’s Cyropaedia
Anabasis of Cyrus
On Xenophon’s Ascent
Hellenika
A Brief Introduction to Xenophon’s Hellenika
Xenophon’s Hellenika Book I: The Return of Alcibiades
Xenophon’s Hellenika Book II: Lysander, The Thirty Tyrants, & The Downfall of Athens
Xenophon’s Hellenika Book III: Sparta’s Struggle for Hegemony
Xenophon’s Hellenika Book IV: Greek Rebellion Against The Spartan Hegemony
Xenophon’s Hellenika Book V: Teleutias and The King’s Peace
Xenophon’s Hellenika Book VI: Proxy Wars of Sparta, Thebes, and Athens
Xenophon’s Hellenika Book VII: The End of Battle With Little Gained
On The Arginousai Affair in Xenophon and Diodorus Sicilus
Memorabilia
On Xenophon’s Account of Socrates in the Memorabilia
Shorter Socratic Works
Socrates’s Desire to Die: On Xenophon’s Apology
A Gentleman Laughing, Dancing, and Singing: Socrates in Xenophon’s Symposium
Xenophon’s Perfect Country Gentleman in the Oeconomicus

Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC)
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Aristotle
Physics
On Aristotle’s Four Causes
On the Soul
Perception in Aristotle’s On The Soul
Metaphysics
Introductory Notes on Aristotle’s Metaphysics
Reflections On Aristotle’s Prime Unmoved Mover
Nicomachean Ethics
Nature in the Nicomachean Ethics
Thoughts on Aristotle’s Political Philosophy
Politics
The Teaching of Aristotle’s Politics
Thoughts on Aristotle’s Political Philosophy
Further Thoughts on Aristotle’s Politics
Aristotle’s Politics Book I: “Man Is A Political Animal”
Aristotle’s Politics Book II: Polemics Against The “City In Speech”
Aristotle’s Politics Book III: The Limits of the City and Citizenship
Aristotle’s Politics Book IV: Democracy and Oligarchy
Aristotle’s Politics Book V: Factions and Changes of Government
Aristotle’s Politics Book VI: On The Endurance of Democracies and Oligarchies
Aristotle’s Politics Books VII-VIII: The Best City and the Education of its Citizens
Rhetoric
Ethos, Pathos, Logos: On Aristotle’s Rhetoric
Aristotle on the Passions
Poetics
Aristotle, Oedipus, and Greek Tragedy
What Is The Teaching of Aristotle’s Poetics?

Elements by Euclid (c. 300 BC)
On the Definitions, Postulates, and Common Notions of Euclid’s Elements
On The Puzzling History of Euclid’s Fifth Postulate
Working Through Book I of Euclid’s Elements

Hippocrates (c. 460 BC – 370 BC)
“Above All, Do No Harm” Notes on Hippocrates and the Hippocratic Oath

The “Four Books” of Ancient China (c. prior to 300 BC)
The Great Learning
Notes on The Great Learning
Analects
Introduction to the Analects
Confucius and Socrates

The Twenty Books of the Analects
Mencius
Mencius and Rousseau
The Doctrine of the Mean
Aristotelian Moderation in The Doctrine of the Mean

The Five Chinese Classics (c. prior to 300 BC)
Classic of Poetry
Notes on the “Classic of Poetry”
Book of Documents
What is the Book of Documents?
Book of Rites
Thoughts On The Book of Rites
I Ching
Infinite Interpretations in the I Ching
Spring and Autumn Annals
Notes on the Spring and Autumn Annals

The Dammapada (c. 3rd century BC)

The Art of War by Sun-Tzu (c. 5th century BC)

The Mahabarata (c. 3rd century BC – 3rd century AD)

The Baghavad Gita (c. 1st millenia BC)

Argonautica by Apollonius of Rhodes (c. 3rd century BC)

Plautus (c. 254 BC – 184 BC)

Conics by Apollonius of Perga (c. 240 BC – 190 BC)

Mathematical Works of Archimedes (c. 287 BC – 212 BC)

Ennius (c. 239 BC – c. 169 BC)

Terence (c. 195/185 BC – 159 BC)

Histories by Polybius (200-118 BC)

Julius Caesar (100 BC – 44 BC)
Commentaries on the Gallic War
Civil War
Alexandrian War
African War
Spanish War

Cicero (106 BC – 43 BC)
On the Republic
On the Laws
On the Ends of Goods and Evils
On Friendship
On Duties

Varro (116BC – 27 BC)

De Rerum Natura by Lucretius (c. 99 BC – 55 BC)

Virgil (70 BC – 19 BC)
Eclogues
Notes on Virgil’s Ten Eclogues
“Omnia Vincit Amor” – On Virgil’s Eclogue X
Georgics
Comparing Virgil’s Georgics with Hesiod’s Works and Days
The Aeneid

Catallus (c. 84 BC – 54 BC)

Statius (c. 45 AD – 96 AD)

Geography by Strabo (c. 64/63 BC – 24 AD)

Odes by Horace (65 BC – 8 BC)

History of Rome by Livy (64/59 BC – AD 12/17)

Metamorphoses by Ovid (43 BC – 17/18 AD)

Elegies by Propertius (50/45 BC – 15 BC)

The Library by Apollodorus (c. 1st century AD)

Satyricon by Gaius Petronius (c. 1st century AD)

Pliny the Elder (23/24 – 79 AD)

Phaedra by Seneca (1st century AD)

Juvenal’s Satires (1st century AD)

Pliny the Younger (51-113 AD)

Epictetus (50 – 135 AD)

Satires by Lucian (125 – 180+ AD)

Roman History Lucius Cassius Dio (155 – 235 AD)

The Library of History by Diodorus Sicilus (1st century BC)
On The Arginousai Affair in Xenophon and Diodorus Sicilus

Plutarch (46 – 119 AD)
What Is The Value of Biography?
Parallel Lives
Moralia

Lives of the Twelve Caesars by Suetonius (68 – 122 AD)
What Is The Value of Biography?

Tacitus (56 – 120 AD)
Germania
Annals
Histories

Roman History by Appian (c. 95 – 165 AD)

Description of Greece by Pausanius (c. 110 – 180 AD)

The Almagest by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-170)

Introduction to Arithmetic by Nicomachus (c. 60-120 AD)

Meditations by Marcus Aurelius (c. AD 161/180)

The Adventures of Leucippe and Clitophon by Achilles Tatius (c. 1st century AD)

On the Sublime by Longinus (c. 1st century AD)

Imagines by Philostratus (c. 170 AD – 247/250 AD)

The Anabasis of Alexander by Arrian (c. 2nd century AD)

Daphnis and Chloe by Longus (2nd century AD)

The Golden Ass by Apulieus (c. 2nd century AD)

Lives of the Eminent Philosophers by Diogenes Laertius (c. 3rd century AD)
Toward an Understanding of Diogenes Laertius and his Lives of the Eminent Philosophers
What Is The Value of Biography?
On the Prologue to Diogenes Laertius’s Lives of the Eminent Philosophers

On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Thales
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Solon
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Anaximander
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Anaximenes
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Anaxagoras
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Socrates
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Xenophon
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Plato
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Aristotle
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Diogenes of Sinope
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Zeno of Citiam

On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Pythagoras
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Empedocles
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Heraclitus
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Parmenides
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Democritus
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Pyrrho
On Diogenes Laertius’s Biography of Epicurus

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