The Ancients

The Epic of Gilgamesh
The Walls of Gilgamesh
Notes on the Origins of the Epic of Gilgamesh

The Enuma Elish
Notes on the Emuna Elish

Tanakh, or Hebrew Bible
Reason and Revelation in the Bible
Notes on the Context of the Tanakh
Where did the Hebrew Bible Come From?
The Torah
Genesis
In Defense of the Serpent
Genesis I: The Seven Days of Creation Examined
Genesis I-III: The Birth of Law

Genesis XI: The Lord versus the City of Man
Exodus
What is Mosaic Law?
Moses as Lawgiver
Leviticus
Notes on Leviticus
Numbers
Notes on Numbers
Deuteronomy
The Words of Moses
What Is The Old Testament?

Nevi’im (Prophets)
Former Prophets
Joshua
Joshua: A Book of Conquest
Judges
Reflections on Judges
1 & 2 Samuel
I Samuel Chapters 8-14: Israel’s Demand for a King
1 & 2 Kings
Saul Weeps, David Dances, And Solomon Judges
Latter Prophets
Isaiah
Prophecy and Apocalypse in Isaiah
Jeremiah
Thoughts on Jeremiah
Ezekiel
Thoughts on Ezekiel
Minor Prophets
Hosea
Infidelity in Hosea
Joel
Plague and Drought in Joel
Amos
Notes on Amos
Obadiah
The Reckoning of Edom in Obadiah
Jonah
Notes on Jonah in Nineveh
Further Consideration of Jonah
Micah
Notes on Micah
Nahum
Notes on Nahum
Habakkuk
The Just Shall Live By His Faith: Habakkuk Considered
Zephaniah
“The Day of the Lord” in Zephaniah
Haggai
Haggai: A Plea To Rebuild the Temple
Zechariah
Eight Visions in Zechariah
Malachi
The Messenger in Malachi

Ketuvim (Writings)
Psalms
In Consideration of Psalms
Proverbs
Thoughts on the Book of Proverbs
Job
Theodicy in the Book of Job
Song of Songs
In Appreciation of the Song of Songs
Ruth
The Harvest of Ruth
Lamentations
Sorrow, Anger, and Hope in Lamentations
Ecclesiastes
Qohelet’s Somber Reflections
Esther
The Persian Fantasy of Esther
Daniel
Daniel: A Book of Dreams and Dark Prophecy
Ezra
Thoughts on Ezra-Nehemiah
Nehemiah
Thoughts on Ezra-Nehemiah
1 & 2 Chronicles
Thoughts on Chronicles

Biblical Apocrypha
1 & 2 Esdras
Notes on 1 and 2 Esdras
Tobit
Tobit: An Apocryphal Romance
Judith
Judith: Israel’s Great Heroine
Rest of Esther
Brief Notes on the Rest of Esther
Wisdom
Thoughts on the Book of Wisdom
Ecclesiasticus/Sirach
Thoughts on Wisdom in Ecclesiasticus
Baruch and the Epistle of Jeremy
Notes on the Book of Baruch and the Epistle of Jeremy
Song of the Three Children
Notes on Additions to the Book of Daniel
Story of Susanna
Susanna: An Apocryphal Fable
The Idol Bel and the Dragon
Notes on Additions to the Book of Daniel
Prayer of Manasseh
Thoughts on the Prayer of Manasseh
1 & 2 Maccabees
The Maccabean Revolt and the Birth of Hanukkah

The Egyptian Book of the Dead
The Trial of the Heart

Homer
Iliad
Political Philosophy in the Iliad
On the Homeric Question
What is the Rage of Achilles?
Thoughts on Odysseus and Achilles
On the Homeric Gods
Persuading Achilles: Books IX, XVI, XXIV Considered
The Iliad and the Odyssey: Two Proems Compared
Book XVIII of the Iliad: Examining the Shield of Achilles

Odyssey
On the Homeric Question
Thoughts on Odysseus and Achilles
Notes on the Telemachia, Books I-IV
On the Homeric Gods
Nature and Order in Homer
The Iliad and the Odyssey: Two Proems Compared
Phemius and Demodocus: Two Bards Considered
Notes on Odysseus’s Tale to the Phaeacians
Books X-XI: Revisiting Odysseus’s Descent into Hades
Hymns
Commentary on the Form of the “Homeric Hymns”

Hesiod
Works and Days
Two Myths in Hesiod’s Works and Days
Theogony
Notes on Hesiod

The Vedas
The Rig Veda
Introduction to the Rig Veda
Notes on Creation and Death in the Rig Veda

The Upanishads
Introduction to the Upanishads
Notes on the Isha Upanishad
What is the Teaching of the Upanishads?
Six Questions in the Prana Upanishad

Fables by Aesop
What Is A Fable?

The Tao Te Ching by Lao Tzu
Important Reflections on the Tao Te Ching

Sappho
Notes on Sappho
Simonides (fragments – no notes)
Pindar (fragments – no notes)

Histories by Herodotus
On Herodotus
The Purpose of the Histories: Notes on Book I
The Empires of Croesus and Cyrus
The Rise of Egypt: Notes on Book II
Egypt, Persia, and the New Regime: Book III
Darius and the New Persian Regime
The Battle of Marathon: Book VI
Xerxes, Thermopylae, and Salamis: Books VII – IX
Notes on Athenian Democracy
What Is History?
What Was The Cause of The Persian Wars?
An Inquiry into Herodotus’s Project
Notes on History

The Presocratic Fragments (fragments – no notes)

Aeschylus
A Brief Note on Aeschylean Tragedy
The Persians
The Idea of the Enemy in Aeschylus’s The Persians
Seven Against Thebes
The Seven Against Thebes and The Phoenician Women Considered
The Suppliants
A Defense of Nomos in The Suppliants
The Oresteia (Agamemnon, The Libations Bearers, The Eumenides)
Dialectic in Agamemnon
The Oresteia: An Affirmation of the Noble Lie
Thoughts on Aeschylus
Prometheus Bound
Notes on Aeschylus

Sophocles
The Theban Plays (Oedipus Tyrannus, Oedipus at Colonus, Antigone)
Summary of the Oedipus Story
Oedipus and Greek Tragedy
Aristotle, Oedipus, and Greek Tragedy

Ajax
Fate Considered in Sophocles’s Ajax
The Women of Trachis

Notes on the Trachiniae
Electra

Notes on Sophocles’s Electra
Philoctetes
The Question of “Deus Ex Machina” in Philoctetes

Euripides
The Context of the Greek Tragedians
What Is The Chorus in Greek Tragedy?
Alcetis
On Euripides’s Alcestis
Medea
On The Medea
Heracleidae
Tragedy and Patriotism in Euripides’s Heracleidae
Hippolytus
Oaths and Truth-Telling in Hippolytus
Andromache
Thoughts on Andromache
Hecuba
What Is Tragic About Greek Tragedy? Euripides’s Hecuba Considered
The Suppliants
Thoughts on The Suppliants
Electra
Electra in Aeschylus vs. Euripides
Heracles
The Lack of Hamartia in Euripides’s Heracles
The Trojan Women
Brief Thoughts on The Trojan Women
Iphigenia in Tauris
Thoughts on Iphigenia in Tauris
Ion
Euripides and the Gods: Ion
Helen
Examining Euripides’s Helen
Phoenician Women
Thoughts on The Phoenician Women
Orestes
The Failure of Orestes
Bacchae
The Dangers of the Poets in The Bacchae
Iphiginaia in Aulis
The Tragedy of Mob-Rule: Iphigenia in Aulis
Rhesus
Brief Notes on the Rhesus
Cyclops
Euripides’s Opinion of Odysseus: The Cyclops Considered

The Peloponnesian War by Thucydides
Thucydides on Greek Origins
Reflections on Thucydides
The Peloponnesian War, Book I: Setting The Stage for War
The Peloponnesian War, Book II: Proxy Wars and Pericles’s Funeral Oration
The Peloponnesian War, Book III: Invasion and Revolution
The Peloponnesian War, Book IV: Armistice and Mounting Losses
The Peloponnesian War, Book V: Battle Recommences and Melos Is Enslaved
The Peloponnesian War, Book VI: Sicily, Alcibiades, and the Hermae
The Peloponnesian War, Books VII-VIII: Athens in Decline and an Abrupt Ending

Aristophanes
Who is Aristophanes?
Thoughts on Aristophanean Comedy
The Acharnians
Treason in the Acharnians
The Knights
Cleon Ridiculed in the Knights
The Clouds
Socrates Ridiculed in the Clouds
The Wasps
The Courts Ridiculed in the Wasps
The Peace
A Parody of Greek Mythology In The Peace
The Birds
Aristophanes’s The Birds: A New City in the Sky
Lysistrata
The War Between the Sexes in Lysistrata
Thezmorphorazuze
The Persecution of the Poets in Thesmophoriazusae
The Frogs
Dionysus’s Descent Into Hades In The Frogs
Ecclesiazusae
The Triumph of Socialism in the Assemblywomen
Wealth
The Worship of Wealth in the Plutos

Menander (fragments – no notes)

Plato
Examining the Platonic Dialogues
On the Authorship of Plato
Apology
Thoughts on the Trial of Socrates and the Socratic Project
Thoughts on the Apology of Socrates
Crito

Notes on Plato’s Crito
Charmides
Thoughts on Plato’s Charmides
Laches
Initial Thoughts on Plato’s Laches
The Question of Courage in the Laches
Lysis
Socrates’s Failure In The Lysis
Euthyphro
Notes on Plato’s Euthyphro
Ion
Greater Hippias
Lesser Hippias

Gorgias
Thoughts On The Gorgias
The Gorgias, A Dialogue of War and Battle
Protagoras
The Examination of Virtue in the Protagoras
Meno
Socrates and Meno
Euthydemus
Thoughts on the Euthydemus
Euthydemus’s Form of Relativism
Cratylus

Cratylus: Plato’s Dialogue on Language
Phaedo

On the Significance of the Death of Socrates
Phaedrus
Initial Notes on Plato’s Phaedrus
Socrates and Phaedrus on Love
An Analysis of the Soul in the Phaedrus

The Soul in the Phaedrus and the Republic
Symposium
Thoughts on the Setting of Plato’s Symposium
The Symposium I: Phaedrus
The Symposium II: Pausanias
The Symposium III: Erixymachus, Aristophanes, Agathon, Socrates, and Alcibiades
What is Love in the Symposium?

The Republic
Plato’s Republic, Book I (Part I): Introduction
Plato’s Republic, Book I (Part II): Cephalus 

Plato’s Republic, Book I (Part III): Polemarchus
Plato’s Republic, Book I (Part IV): Thrasymachus
Plato’s Republic, Book II (Part I): Glaucon and Adeimantus
Plato’s Republic, Book II (Part II): The City In Speech
Plato’s Republic, Book III: The Noble Lie
Plato’s Republic, Book IV: The Cardinal Virtues
Plato’s Republic, Book V: Communism and the Philosopher King
Plato’s Republic, Book VI: The Defense of the Philosophers
Plato’s Republic, Book VII: “The Allegory of the Cave”
Plato’s Republic, Book VIII: The Decay of the Regimes
Plato’s Republic, Book IX: The Soul of the Tyrant
Plato’s Republic, Book X: The Poets and the Myth of Er
The Teaching of the Republic
Theaetetus
Outline of the Theaetetus
Why Theaetetus
A Note on Temporality in the Theaetetus
Parmenides
The Silence of Socrates: Plato’s Parmenides
Sophist
Considering Plato’s Sophist
Statesman

Thoughts on Plato’s Statesman
Philebus
Wandering Thoughts on the Philebus
Timaeus – Critias

Timaeus and the Likely Story
Laws
Plato’s Laws, Book I: The Divine Puppet
Plato’s Laws: Notes on Books II-IV

Apocryphal Platonic Dialogues
Second Letter
Seventh Letter
Alcibiades I, Alcibiades II
Epinomis
Menexenus
Hipparchus
On the Hipparchus, or Lovers of Gain
Lovers
Notes on Plato’s Lovers
Cleitophon
On the Cleitophon
Theages
On the Theages
Minos
What is Law in the Minos?

Xenophon
Education of Cyrus
Anabasis of Cyrus
Hellenica
Memorabilia
Shorter Socratic Works

Aristotle
Physics
On the Soul
Metaphysics
Nicomachean Ethics
Nature in the Nicomachean Ethics
Politics
Rhetoric
Poetics
Aristotle, Oedipus, and Greek Tragedy
What Is The Teaching of Aristotle’s Poetics?

Elements by Euclid

Hippocrates

The “Four Books” of Ancient China
The Great Learning
Notes on The Great Learning
Analects
Introduction to the Analects
Confucius and Socrates

The Twenty Books of the Analects
Mencius
The Doctrine of the Mean

The Five Chinese Classics
Classic of Poetry
Book of Documents
Book of Rites
I Ching
Spring and Autumn Annals

The Adventures of Leucippe and Clitophon by Achilles Tatius

Imagines by Philostratus

The Dammapada

The Art of War by Sun-Tzu

The Mahabarata

The Baghavad Gita

The Poetic Edda

Tale of Genji

Galen

Argonautica by Apollonius of Rhodes

Mathematical Works of Archimedes

The Anabasis of Alexander by Arrian

Catallus

On the Nature of Things by Lucretius

Geography by Strabo

Description of Greece by Pausanius

Roman History by Appian

Plautus

Terence

Ennius

Commentaries on the Gallic War by Julius Caesar

Cicero
On the Republic
On the Laws
On the Ends of Goods and Evils
On Friendship
On Duties

Virgil
The Aeneid
Georgics
Eclogues

Metamorphoses by Ovid

Propertius

Tibullus

The Library by Apollodorus

History of Rome by Livy

Satyricon

Ausonius

Livius Andronicus

Pliny the Elder

Phaedra by Seneca

Juvenal’s Satires

Odes by Horace

Pliny the Younger

Lucan

Histories by Polybius

The Golden Ass by Apulieus

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