Haxan: Witchcraft Through the Ages (1922) Director: Benjamin Christiansen
Haxan is an odd Danish-Swedish film. Part-documentary and part-horror themed, this silent film is considered one of the creepiest horror films of the silent era – along with The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari or Nosferatu. It was censored and/or banned in Western Europe, but was celebrated in the Nordic countries. The Director initially intended for two sequels to later be released, but they were never made. He worked at his own pace on the film, often at night, and rumors circulated about strange rituals during the filming process.
The first ten minutes or so are scenes of paintings and wooden figures, delivering a rudimentary history lesson of Satan and witchcraft throughout the middle ages. It takes a noticeably progressive point-of-view, denouncing the past as barbaric and infantile. Following this introduction, are a series of disturbing scenes, detailing the various ways the devil tempts people. The costumes, sets, and lighting are all impressive, however it also features nudity, shocking props, the occult, and scenes of rape and torture.
The Director, Benjamin Chistiensen played the Devil in the movie. At the time, he was studying “Malleus Maleficarum” (Hammer of Witches), a 1482 German guide for Catholic inquisitors. It was a popular book in its medieval day, though largely rejected by German Academia and theologians for its unethical calls to exterminate witches. The controversial legal argument was to make witchcraft considered on par with heresy, and thereby punishable by torture and death. At any rate, Christiensen was a medical school drop-out who initially got into music and theatre, but after his voice failed him, he worked for a champagne company. He eventually stumbled into films, a medium he did not consider a viable artistic option in the way theatre was. His films were privately financed in the early days, and they were racy like much of the Swedish-Danish golden age of cinema in the 1910s. Haxan was the most expensive Swedish film released to date. In later life, he struggled until the government offered him a pension to run a small cinema near Copenhagen, which he did until he died. Haxan was his magnum opus – it both simulatneaously made his career and also destroyed it. He later starred in a celebrated role in Carl Theodor Dryer’s film Mikael where he played an artist destroyed by his male protege’s infidelities.
Later versions of Haxan include an edited narration version, which was released in the United States, and narrated version by William S. Burroughs, with an odd jazz score.
Haxan is an innovative and important film to the history of both the documentary and horror genres, but it is a trial to sit through and it is disturbing in many ways, even for all-too-desensitized tastes of the modern audience.